84 Fr 87 pgs. 19743-19745 – u.s. standards for grades ledderhose disease mayo clinic of apples

This rule does not meet the definition of a significant ledderhose disease mayo clinic regulatory action contained in section 3(f) of Executive Order 12866, and is not subject to review by the Office of ledderhose disease mayo clinic Management and Budget (OMB). Because this rule does not meet the definition of a ledderhose disease mayo clinic significant regulatory action, it does not trigger the requirements in Executive Order 13771. See OMB’s Memorandum titled "Interim Guidance Implementing Section 2 of the Executive Order of ledderhose disease mayo clinic January 30, 2017, titled `Reducing Regulation and Controlling Regulatory Costs’ " (February 2, 2017). Executive Orders 12866 and 13563 direct agencies to assess all ledderhose disease mayo clinic costs and benefits of available regulatory alternatives and, if regulation is necessary, to select regulatory approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential economic, environmental, public health and safety effects, distributive impacts, and equity). Executive Order 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs ledderhose disease mayo clinic and benefits, reducing costs, harmonizing rules, and promoting flexibility.

The current U.S. standards provide for apples to be sorted into various grades, including but not limited to: U.S. Extra Fancy, U.S. Fancy, and U.S. No. 1. Each of these grades describes the qualities that must be ledderhose disease mayo clinic present for apples to meet the standards. These descriptions also specify features that are not to be ledderhose disease mayo clinic scored against certain varieties of apples when determining grade. AMS proposes adding one such specification to the U.S. standards for apples that would allow for smooth net-like russeting of Fuji apples in all grades. Smooth net-like russeting is a cosmetic defect that affects the apple ledderhose disease mayo clinic skin but not the internal quality of the fruit. Smooth net-like russeting, which has been called flecking by the Pacific Northwest apple ledderhose disease mayo clinic industry, is prevalent in the Fuji variety. U.S. apple standards in their current form restrict apples exhibiting an ledderhose disease mayo clinic aggregate area of smooth net-like russeting greater than 10 percent for U.S. Extra Fancy, 15 percent for U.S. Fancy, and 25 percent for U.S. No. 1 from meeting the grade requirements. The Export Apple Act regulations (7 CFR 33) require that apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S. No. 1 Early, except that apples for export to Pacific ports of Russia ledderhose disease mayo clinic must grade at least U.S. Utility or U.S. No. 1 Hail for hail damaged apples, as specified in the U.S. Standards for Grades of Apples. Fuji apples that display smooth net-like russeting greater than the percentages allowed are therefore excluded ledderhose disease mayo clinic from the export market due to current U.S. grade standards. [top] The Washington State Grade Standards for Apples (16 W.A.C. 403) do not consider smooth net-like russeting to be a defect for the Fuji variety ledderhose disease mayo clinic of apple, provided that the russeting does not rise above the surface ledderhose disease mayo clinic of the skin or is rough to the touch. Nearly three-quarters of domestically-produced fresh apples are grown in Washington and represent more ledderhose disease mayo clinic than 90 percent of apples in the export market. Revising the U.S. apple grade standards to exclude scoring of smooth net-like russeting on Fuji apples as a quality defect, as specified in the Washington State standards, will promote consistency across the apple market and remove barriers ledderhose disease mayo clinic to the export market for growers of the Fuji variety.

In December 2016 the Northwest Horticultural Council (NHC) petitioned AMS to remove the requirement for scoring smooth net-like russeting from the U.S. Standards for Grades of Apples for the Fuji variety. In response, AMS asked the NHC to provide justification and evidence of ledderhose disease mayo clinic industry support, which they did in a memorandum submitted in April 2018. The NHC provided research claiming that Fuji apples have a ledderhose disease mayo clinic propensity for smooth net-like russeting, which does not negatively affect the internal quality of the ledderhose disease mayo clinic fruit. In addition, the NHC stated the revision would partially harmonize the U.S. apple standards with the Washington State apple standards, and help prevent sound Fuji apples from being rejected in ledderhose disease mayo clinic domestic and international markets. The NHC petition was supported by the Washington Apple Commission, Idaho Apple Commission, California Apple Commission, and many other apple organizations. AMS conducted research on the proposal by meeting with Washington ledderhose disease mayo clinic State and industry personnel in November 2018. Based on available data, AMS concluded that exempting Fuji apples from scoring smooth net-like russeting as a quality defect will provide the industry ledderhose disease mayo clinic with greater flexibility, and align the standards with current state and industry practices.

"U.S. Extra Fancy" consists of apples of one variety (except when more than one variety is printed on the ledderhose disease mayo clinic container) which are mature but not overripe, clean, fairly well formed, free from decay, internal browning, internal breakdown, soft scald, scab, freezing injury, visible watercore, and broken skins. The apples are also free from injury caused by bruises, brown surface discoloration, smooth net-like russeting, sunburn or sprayburn, limb rubs, hail, drought spots, scars, disease, insects, or other means. The apples are free from damage caused by bitter pit ledderhose disease mayo clinic or Jonathan spot and by smooth solid, slightly rough or rough russeting, or stem or calyx cracks, as well as damage by invisible watercore after January 31st ledderhose disease mayo clinic of the year following the year of production except for ledderhose disease mayo clinic the Fuji variety of apples. Invisible watercore and smooth net-like russeting shall not be scored against the Fuji variety ledderhose disease mayo clinic of apples under any circumstances. For the apple varieties listed in table I of §?51.305, each apple of this grade has the amount of color ledderhose disease mayo clinic specified for the variety. (See §?51.305 and §?51.306.)

§?51.302 U.S. No. 1. [top] "U.S. No. 1" consists of apples which meet the requirements of U.S. Fancy grade except for color, russeting, and invisible water core. In this grade, less color is required for all varieties listed in table ledderhose disease mayo clinic I of §?51.305. Apples of this grade are free from excessive damage caused ledderhose disease mayo clinic by russeting which means that apples meet the russeting requirements ledderhose disease mayo clinic for U.S. Fancy as defined under the definitions of "damage by russeting," except the aggregate area of an apple which may be ledderhose disease mayo clinic covered by smooth net-like russeting shall not exceed 25 percent; and the aggregate area of an apple which may be ledderhose disease mayo clinic covered by smooth solid russeting shall not exceed 10 percent: Provided, That, in the case of the Yellow Newtown or similar varieties, the aggregate area of an apple which may be covered ledderhose disease mayo clinic with smooth solid russeting shall not exceed 20 percent; and that smooth net-like russeting shall not be scored against the Fuji variety ledderhose disease mayo clinic under any circumstances. Each apple of this grade has the amount of color ledderhose disease mayo clinic specified in §?51.305 for the variety. Invisible watercore shall not be scored in this grade. (See §?51.305 and §?51.306.)

(a) In addition to the requirements specified for the grades set ledderhose disease mayo clinic forth in §§?51.300 to 51.304, apples of these grades shall have the percentage of color ledderhose disease mayo clinic specified for the variety in table I appearing in this ledderhose disease mayo clinic section. All apple varieties other than those appearing in table I ledderhose disease mayo clinic shall have no color requirements pertaining to these grades. For the solid red varieties, the percentage stated refers to the area of the surface ledderhose disease mayo clinic which must be covered with a good shade of solid ledderhose disease mayo clinic red characteristic of the variety: Provided, That an apple having color of a lighter shade of ledderhose disease mayo clinic solid red or striped red than that considered as a ledderhose disease mayo clinic good shade of red characteristic of the variety may be ledderhose disease mayo clinic admitted to a grade, provided it has sufficient additional area covered so that the ledderhose disease mayo clinic apple has as good an appearance as one with the ledderhose disease mayo clinic minimum percentage of good red characteristic of the variety required ledderhose disease mayo clinic for the grade. For the striped red varieties, the percentage stated refers to the area of the surface ledderhose disease mayo clinic in which the stripes of a good shade of red ledderhose disease mayo clinic characteristic of the variety shall predominate over stripes of lighter ledderhose disease mayo clinic red, green, or yellow. However, an apple having color of a lighter shade than that ledderhose disease mayo clinic considered as a good shade of red characteristic of the ledderhose disease mayo clinic variety may be admitted to a grade, provided it has sufficient additional area covered so that the ledderhose disease mayo clinic apple has as good an appearance as one with the ledderhose disease mayo clinic minimum percentage of stripes of a good red characteristic of ledderhose disease mayo clinic the variety required for the grade. Faded brown stripes shall not be considered as color.

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