Dairy research bulletin – april 2019 – california ledderhose disease treatment dairy research foundation

• The state of California produces a third of the country’s vegetables as well as two‐thirds of its fruits and nuts. Most of these commodities are grown and cultivated during the ledderhose disease treatment summer months, where temperatures can rise above 32°C and agricultural workers sometimes conduct arduous work for up ledderhose disease treatment to 12 hours a day under direct sunlight. It is these working conditions that put farmworkers at risk ledderhose disease treatment for heat‐related illnesses such as heat rashes, heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke.

• Employers in California are required to provide water and encourage ledderhose disease treatment their workers to drink a cup (8 oz) water every 15 minutes to stay hydrated on hot days. Previous quantitative research in the city of Mendota, which is in the Central Valley of California, found that farm workers were not drinking enough water to ledderhose disease treatment stay hydrated throughout the day

• Moreover, these observations indicate an enhanced resistance of poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA)-overproducing subtilis, which produces high amounts of proteinaceous extracellular matrix, to the CIP procedures (about 0.7 log, compared to the wild-type non-dairy strain of B. subtilis). Therefore, it is suggested that the enhanced resistance to the CIP ledderhose disease treatment procedures by the dairy Bacillusisolates can be attributed to robust ledderhose disease treatment biofilm formation.

• California is the largest dairy producer in the U.S. In 2014, there were 1.8 million dairy cattle that produced over 35 million tons ledderhose disease treatment of manure. The common agricultural practice of using bovine manure as biological ledderhose disease treatment soil amendments presents potential risks to public health if untreated ledderhose disease treatment manure containing human pathogens, such as E. coli O157 and Salmonella spp., is applied to cropland. Understanding the prevalence and levels of human pathogens in bovine ledderhose disease treatment manure is important to assess the public health risk of ledderhose disease treatment its application as biological soil amendments.

• Model results indicated that only the 3.0% CaO treatment had a statistically important negative effect on MAP ledderhose disease treatment counts during the study period. For most treatments, MAP was undetectable immediately after chemical treatment but re-appeared over time, in some replicates at low concentrations. However, in those cases MAP counts were not statistically different than ledderhose disease treatment the control treatment.

• Measurement of the rumen fermentation products showed that the concentrations ledderhose disease treatment of ruminal total volatile fatty acids, propionate, butyrate, and valerate and the proportion of isobutyrate were higher in ledderhose disease treatment the HH cows than in the LL cows. Additional analysis of the rumen bacterial community revealed that the ledderhose disease treatment richness of rumen microbiota was higher in the LL cows ledderhose disease treatment than in the HH cows.

• Among the 10 predominant bacterial phyla, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria was 1.36-fold higher in the HH cows than in the LL ledderhose disease treatment cows. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Succinivibrio was significantly higher and that ledderhose disease treatment of Clostridium tended to be higher in the LL cows ledderhose disease treatment than in the HH cows. Sharpea was 2.28-fold enriched in the HH cows compared with the LL ledderhose disease treatment cows.

• Different relationships between the relative abundances of rumen microbial taxa ledderhose disease treatment and volatile fatty acid concentrations were observed in the HH ledderhose disease treatment and the LL animals, respectively. Succinivibrio and Prevotella were positively correlated with acetate, propionate, and valerate in the LL cows, whereas Sharpea was positively correlated with propionate and valerate concentrations ledderhose disease treatment in the HH cows.

• Every day, consumers make choices about what they eat, taking into account taste, nutrition, availability, safety, and cost, among other factors. Increasingly, consumers are also interested in the impact of food production ledderhose disease treatment on the environment, as shown by the growth in the organic industry and ledderhose disease treatment the emergence of other labels certifying sustainable production practices or ledderhose disease treatment packaging.

• The researchers found that an omnivore diet that meets the ledderhose disease treatment DGA while constraining cost leaves food system GHGE essentially unchanged ledderhose disease treatment relative to the current baseline diet (~3,191 kilograms of CO2 eq per capita per year), while a DGA-compliant vegetarian and a DGA-compliant omnivore diet that minimizes energy consumption in the food ledderhose disease treatment system reduce GHGE by 32% and 22%, respectively.

• To develop a food system that is both healthy and ledderhose disease treatment sustainable requires innovation. This science advisory from the American Heart Association describes both ledderhose disease treatment innovative approaches to developing a healthy and sustainable food system ledderhose disease treatment and the current evidence base for the associations between these ledderhose disease treatment approaches and positive changes in dietary behaviors, dietary intakes, and when available, health outcomes.

• Innovation can occur through policy, private sector, public health, medical, community, or individual-level approaches and could ignite and further public-private partnerships. Some innovations have been observed to increase the purchasing of ledderhose disease treatment healthy foods or have increased diversity in food choices, but there remains limited evidence linking these innovations with health ledderhose disease treatment outcomes.

• The demonstration of evidence-based improvements in health outcomes is challenging for any preventive ledderhose disease treatment interventions, especially those related to diet, because of competing lifestyle and environmental risk factors that are ledderhose disease treatment difficult to quantify. A key next step in creating a healthier and more ledderhose disease treatment sustainable food system is to build innovative system-level approaches that improve individual behaviors, strengthen industry and community efforts, and align policies with evidence-based recommendations.

• Dietary-related risks rank top among all the health risks in ledderhose disease treatment many countries. The 2nd United Nations Sustainable Development Goal aims to end ledderhose disease treatment hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. Yet whether improving nutritional quality also benefits the environment is ledderhose disease treatment still under-explored, particularly for developing countries.

• This paper evaluates greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, and land appropriation resulting from shifting the Chinese population to ledderhose disease treatment healthy diets. The researchers quantified the environmental impacts of individual diets using ledderhose disease treatment the latest available data of China Health and Nutrition Survey ledderhose disease treatment (2011), and compared them with the environmental impacts of suggested healthy ledderhose disease treatment dietary patterns in accordance with the 2016 Chinese Dietary Guidelines.

• Demand side interventions, such as dietary change, can significantly contribute towards the achievement of 2030 national sustainable ledderhose disease treatment development goals. However, most previous studies analyzing the consequences of dietary change focus ledderhose disease treatment on a single dimension of sustainability (e.g., environment) using a limited number of indicators and dietary scenarios.

• A multi-dimension and multi-indicator analysis can identify the potential trade-offs. Here, starting from the current food consumption data (year 2011), the researchers first designed nine alternative dietary scenarios (healthy Swiss diet, healthy global diet, vegetarian, vegan, pescatarian, flexitarian, protein-oriented and meat-oriented diets and a food greenhouse gas tax diet).

• Next the researchers calculated three nutritional quality (nutrient balance score, disqualifying nutrient score, percent population with adequate nutrition), five environmental (greenhouse gas, water, land, nitrogen and phosphorus use), one economic (daily food expenditure) and one human health indicator (DALYs) for current and alternative diets.

• Overall, the analysis underscores the need to consider multiple indicators while ledderhose disease treatment assessing the dietary sustainability and provides a template to conduct ledderhose disease treatment such studies in other countries and settings. Future efforts should focus on assessing the potential of different ledderhose disease treatment interventions and policies that can help transition the population to ledderhose disease treatment sustainable dietary patterns.

• Five of the 14 studies included in the review reported ledderhose disease treatment significant improvements in children’s dairy (4/5) or calcium (1/5) intake. Characteristics that may enable intervention effectiveness include the delivery of ledderhose disease treatment interventions in one setting (preschool facility), using specific behavior change techniques (environmental restructuring and teach to use prompts/cues), and targeting both parent and child.

The effect of high compared with low dairy consumption on ledderhose disease treatment glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic flexibility in overweight adults: a randomized crossover trial. Eelderink C, Rietsema S, van Vliet IMY, Loef LC, Boer T, Koehorst M, Nolte IM, Westerhuis R, Singh-Povel CM, Geurts JMW, Corpeleijn E, Bakker SJL. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 Apr 17. pii: nqz017.

• In this randomized intervention study, subjects consumed a high-dairy diet (5-6 dairy portions/day) and a low-dairy diet (≤1 dairy portion/day), for 6 weeks in a crossover design, with a washout period of 4 weeks in between. Dairy portions were 200 grams semi-skimmed yogurt, 30 grams reduced-fat (30+) cheese, and 250 milliliters semi-skimmed milk and buttermilk.

• The study was completed by 45 overweight men and postmenopausal ledderhose disease treatment women. Fasting glucose concentrations were similar between groups, whereas fasting insulin concentrations were lower after the low-dairy diet. This resulted in a higher measure of insulin resistance after ledderhose disease treatment the high-dairy diet. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses as well as glucose kinetics ledderhose disease treatment were similar after both diets.

• Higher animal-to-plant protein ratio and higher meat intake were associated with ledderhose disease treatment increased mortality. When evaluated based on disease history at baseline, the association of total protein with mortality appeared more evident ledderhose disease treatment among those with a history of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer (n = 1094) compared with those without disease history (n = 1547).

• Sixty adults (58 ± 2 years) with elevated BP (systolic/diastolic; 120-159/ < 99 mmHg) were randomized into a controlled crossover intervention trial consisting of ledderhose disease treatment two 4-week dietary periods. The highdairy condition consisted of adding four daily servings of ledderhose disease treatment whole milk or full-fat dairy products to the normal diet and eliminated all ledderhose disease treatment dairy intake during the control (no dairy) condition. A 2-week washout period separated the dietary conditions.

• Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and brachial arterial flow-mediated dilation did not differ significantly between high dairy and ledderhose disease treatment nodairy conditions. The results were consistent when ultrasound-derived vascular distension measures (arterial compliance, beta-stiffness index, and elastic modulus) were evaluated. Cardiovagal baroreceptor sensitivity demonstrated no significant difference for either dietary ledderhose disease treatment condition.