How did ledderhose disease images the bubonic plague make the italian renaissance possible –

The Black Death (1347-1350) was a pandemic that devastated the populations of Europe and ledderhose disease images Asia. The plague was an unprecedented human tragedy in Italy. It not only shook Italian society but transformed it. The Black Death marked an end of an era in ledderhose disease images Italy, its impact was profound, and it resulted in wide-ranging social, economic, cultural and religious changes. [1] These changes, directly and indirectly, led to the emergence of the Renaissance, one of the greatest epochs for art, architecture, and literature in human history.

To Black Death spread to Italy from modern-day Russia. Genoese merchants spread the plague while fleeing a Mongol attack ledderhose disease images on their trading post in Crimea. The plague was carried and spread by the fleas that ledderhose disease images lived on the Black Rat and brought to Italy on ledderhose disease images the Genoese ships. [2] The population of Italy was ill prepared for the spread ledderhose disease images of the disease. There had been a series of famine and food shortages ledderhose disease images in the region, and the population was weak and vulnerable to disease, and furthermore, the population did not have any natural resistance to the ledderhose disease images disease. Italy was the most urbanized society in Europe, Milan, Rome, Florence, and other Italian centers among the largest on the continent. [3]

The majority of the urban population in cities such as ledderhose disease images Naples were impoverished and lived in squalid and dirty conditions. These factors ensured that the diseases spread quickly and that ledderhose disease images there was a high level of mortality, among the poor, although even the rich could not escape the plague. [4] From the cities, the plague spread like wildfire to the small towns and ledderhose disease images villages of the peninsula.

There is no firm data on the impact of the ledderhose disease images plague on the population of Italy. However, some examples show the full extent of the disease in ledderhose disease images Italy. The plague halved the population of Florence. The population crashed and fell from approximately 100,000 to 50,000. The experience of Florence was replicated across all the major ledderhose disease images cities of Italy which also experienced similar drastic declines. The death rate in rural Italy was not nearly as ledderhose disease images high, but there was a significant loss of life. In general, the total population of Italy may have dropped by as ledderhose disease images much as a third. [5]

The Black Death was also an economic crisis as trade ledderhose disease images ceased because of fear of the spread of plague. As trade stagnated, businesses failed, and unemployment rose. The plague caused a complete social breakdown in many areas. Boccaccio in the Decameron, describes people abandoning their occupations, ignoring the sick and living lives of wild excess, as everyone expected to die.

"Thus, doing exactly as they prescribed, they spent day and night moving from one tavern to ledderhose disease images the next, drinking without mode or measure, or doing the same thing in other people’s homes, engaging only in those activities that gave them pleasure….. And they combined this bestial behavior with as complete an ledderhose disease images avoidance of the sick as they could manage." [6] Socio-Economic Consequences

The social consequences of the plague on society came to ledderhose disease images be profound. The high mortality rate resulted in a drastic decline in ledderhose disease images the labor force. [7]. Wages rose for both agricultural and urban workers. The survivors of the Black Death generally had a higher ledderhose disease images standard of living than before the plague. [8] This was a phenomenon that occurred in both urban and ledderhose disease images rural areas. The crisis caused by the Black Death led to many ledderhose disease images changes in the economy, in response to the fall in the population. Because of the labor shortages, there was a move from labor-intensive farming such as cereal to livestock and increase both ledderhose disease images in industry and agriculture more labor-saving devices employed. [9] The impact of the Black Death was contrary on feudalism ledderhose disease images in Italy. Feudalism was a system whereby peasants and farm laborers bound, as serfs, to serve a local lord. In the north of Italy, good farmland was plentiful, and wages increased, and the last vestiges of feudalism disappeared as serfs increasingly ledderhose disease images could purchase their freedom.

In the south of Italy the opposite occurred, here, since the Norman kings, the aristocracy had been consolidating feudalism. After the Black Death, the elite responded to the labor shortages by strengthening the ledderhose disease images restrictions on the peasants and thereby strengthened feudalism in southern ledderhose disease images Italy. The consequences of the plague resulted in a growing divide ledderhose disease images between the North and South of Italy that persists to ledderhose disease images this day. [10] In general, after a period of recovery, much of Italy became very wealthy as a more sophisticated ledderhose disease images economy emerged, especially in the North of Italy. This was crucial, as the increased wealth of Italy allowed the elite, such as the De Medici’s in Florence to become the patrons of great artists ledderhose disease images such as Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. [11] Religious Consequences

Initially, in Italy, the plague led to a revival in religion among many. The middle ages was a time when people believed that ledderhose disease images events are a result of God’s will. Many viewed the plague as punishment for God for the ledderhose disease images wickedness and immorality of the people. There was an upsurge in religious observance, and many sections of the public became swept by religious ledderhose disease images fervor, as many sincerely believed that the Black Death was a ledderhose disease images sign that the end of the world was coming. [12] Religious fanaticism spread throughout the peninsula and many men and ledderhose disease images women performed in extreme religious practices, such as the flagellants. The flagellants whipped themselves into a frenzy to atone for ledderhose disease images their sins. The Church suffered greatly during the plague, many priests and especially monks died. The monasteries proved ideal breeding grounds for the plague while ledderhose disease images many priests contracted the sickness as they gave the last ledderhose disease images rites to the dying. [13]

The result was a shortage of trained monks and priests. To deal with this, the Church hastily trained new monks and priests to serve ledderhose disease images the spiritual needs of the community, still coming to terms with the trauma of the Black ledderhose disease images Death. This meant that many unsuitable individuals became clerics and this ledderhose disease images led to a drop in standards among parish priests, in particular. [14] The Church became corrupt and gradually over time lost the ledderhose disease images respect of many believers. In the short term the Black Death strengthened the Catholic ledderhose disease images Church in Italy, but in the long run, an increasingly corrupt institution meant that many people lost their ledderhose disease images faith. This led to the increasing secularisation of Italian society as ledderhose disease images many increasingly turned away from the church in disgust as ledderhose disease images the worldliness of prelates and priests. The contempt that many felt is evident in the stories ledderhose disease images of Boccaccio of venal and depraved priests, monks and nuns. [15] The church had traditionally monopolized education, but after the Black Death, there was more secular education, especially in the cities. This was decisive in the emergence of the Renaissance, with its emphasis on human values and experiences rather than ledderhose disease images religion. [16]

The world was turned upside down by the Black Death. The mental outlook of people changed dramatically. Previously, people assumed that the world was fixed and God-ordained. The Black Death overturned old certainties. As we have seen the plague and its devastation undermined ledderhose disease images religious orthodoxy and beliefs. People at the time were no longer willing to accept ledderhose disease images the status quo. This change manifested in the numerous political revolts of the ledderhose disease images time. [17] The most famous of these, led by the poor workers and weavers called popularly the ledderhose disease images Ciompi, that took place in Florence in 1378. For four years, the poor formed the government of the city. The revolt was one of several in Italy at the ledderhose disease images time. No longer are people as willing to question the old ledderhose disease images ways of doing things and no longer accepted things because ledderhose disease images they were sanctioned by tradition.

The Black Death led to a great questioning of the ledderhose disease images old certainties. This led many, especially among the urban elite to use reason to understand ledderhose disease images the world. They also increasingly turned to the classics to find answers ledderhose disease images to the problems of life. The new spirit of inquiry helped to ignite the Renaissance, especially in politics and philosophy. [18] However, that is not to say, that Italy rejected all traditions, it was still a very conservative society in many ways. However, those who questioned authority and the received wisdom, such as the Poet and Scholar Petrarch inspired the Humanist ledderhose disease images movement, which valued reason and critical thinking. The Humanist are essential in the development and progress of ledderhose disease images the Renaissance. [19] Cultural Change

Initially, the Black Death led to a fascination with death among ledderhose disease images many Italians. The loss of life and the suffering led many to ledderhose disease images become obsessed with death. [20] The Dance of Death was a popular motif in art ledderhose disease images and architecture at this time. The general mood was one of pessimism, and indeed many expected that sooner or later that the ledderhose disease images world would end. Alongside this fear of death and the general mood of ledderhose disease images pessimism, there was a desire to experience the pleasures of life ledderhose disease images and to seize any happiness that was on offer. This contradictory impact of the Black Death on the culture ledderhose disease images of the time can be seen in the writings of ledderhose disease images two of the greatest figures in European literature, Petrarch and Boccaccio. [21] These two writers at times wrote in despair about the ledderhose disease images human condition yet they also wrote about the joys of ledderhose disease images life and the beauties of nature.

This sense that life was fleeting and that every happiness ledderhose disease images should be seized, led many Italians to seek solace in art and literature ledderhose disease images and this was one of the factors in the development ledderhose disease images of the Renaissance. Many of the elite were eager to enjoy the pleasures ledderhose disease images of life, and this led them to patronize artists. It also resulted in a shift in the themes of ledderhose disease images artists. [22] Religious topics remained popular, however, there was also a fascination with secular themes, especially from the classical world. The new interest in secular subjects can be seen in ledderhose disease images a comparison between Giotto and Botticelli. Giotto painted almost exclusively religious paintings. While Giotto, painted both secular and religious themes, indeed he is best known for his secular works as ledderhose disease images in masterpieces such as Primavera. [23] Social Mobility

The plague disrupted society to an unprecedented state. It overturned the existing social structure. Previous, to the outbreak of the plague, Italy was a rigid and stratified society. The Black Death changed everything. Increasingly, because of the demographic disaster caused by the plague were ledderhose disease images able to take advantage of the opportunities caused by the ledderhose disease images high death rate. In the period after the Black Death, an unprecedented amount of social mobility took place. Laborers became merchants and merchants become members of the nobility. No longer was a person’s destiny to be fixed by their birth. Previously, people assumed that one’s station was fixed at one’s birth and that one had to remain a member ledderhose disease images of the class you were born into. [24] People believed that a peasant would always be a peasant, an aristocrat, and aristocrat. Italians, like other peoples, in Europe, believed that one’s birth determined one’s future and that this was determined by God. [25]

However, as social mobility became more widespread because of the Black ledderhose disease images Death, many people, came to believe that a person’s merits or abilities were what mattered and not one’s birth. [26] This led to a growing individualism in Italian society. This, in turn, encouraged people to strive and to develop their talents and ledderhose disease images achieve excellence or virtue. [27] The belief in the individual was central to the Renaissance ledderhose disease images and it inspired many of the greatest artists, architects, sculptures and writers, the world have ever seen to create peerless works.

One group that was adversely impacted by the Black Death ledderhose disease images was the nobility. This was also the case in many other European regions ledderhose disease images and kingdoms. The nobility suffered as much as many others classes as ledderhose disease images a result of the plague and many families died out ledderhose disease images during the period. In the aftermath of the epidemic, they found themselves in serious financial difficulties. The loss of population meant that there was no longer ledderhose disease images a high demand for their land and rents fell. [28]

Many of their laborers simply left the land, and they were not replaced. Many of the nobility found themselves obliged to sell their ledderhose disease images serfs their freedom or to sell land to merchants from ledderhose disease images the cities. At this time, many wealthy merchants purchased new estates. The demise of the traditional elite meant that a new ledderhose disease images elite came to the fore, composed of merchants and self-made men. This new elite often keen to patronize arts. They were very conscious of their lack of birth and ledderhose disease images humble origins. [29]

They were keen to use art and to patronize men ledderhose disease images of letters to compensate for lack of traditional authority. In order to appear the equal of the old aristocracy, they sought to sponsor artists who would win the esteem ledderhose disease images of the public. [30] This was one of the reasons for the lavish patronage ledderhose disease images of the de Medici’s in Florence. They were keen patrons of the arts, to justify their status in society and to impress the ledderhose disease images general population. This meant that the great artists had many patrons, who often competed for their talents and this allowed them ledderhose disease images to concentrate on their art and to produce some of ledderhose disease images the greatest art, ever known. [31] Conclusion

The Black Death devastated Italian society in the middle of ledderhose disease images the 14th century. It led to great socio-economic, cultural and religious changes. After the initial horrors of the plague, Italian society, staged a spectacular recovery. Italy became richer than before. The impact of the plague reduced the influence of the ledderhose disease images Catholic Church as diminished, and the culture became more secular. The new social mobility meant that individualism came to be ledderhose disease images respected. The Black Death unleashed the forces in Italian society that ledderhose disease images made the Renaissance possible.