Odfw wolves and livestock ledderhose disease loss investigations

ODFW uses the same criteria as USDA Wildlife Services to ledderhose disease images classify the findings of wolf-livestock loss investigations. In some cases, livestock losses cannot be confirmed to be caused by wolves ledderhose disease images because there is not enough evidence. In others, an investigation finds the domestic animal died by an entirely ledderhose disease images different cause. More detail on the classifications used is below.

CONFIRMED – Depredation is confirmed in those cases where there is reasonable ledderhose disease images physical evidence that an animal was actually attacked and/or killed by a predator. The primary confirmation factor would ordinarily be the presence of ledderhose disease images bite marks and associated subcutaneous hemorrhaging and tissue damage, indicating that the attack occurred while the victim was alive, as opposed to simply feeding on an already dead animal. Spacing between canine tooth punctures, feeding pattern on the carcass, fresh tracks, scat, hairs rubbed off on fences or brush, and/or eye witness accounts of the attack may help identify ledderhose disease images the specific species or individual responsible for the depredation. Predation might also be confirmed in the absence of bite ledderhose disease images marks and associated hemorrhaging (i.e., if much of the carcass has already been consumed by ledderhose disease images the predator or scavengers) if there is other physical evidence to confirm predation on ledderhose disease images the live animal. This might include blood spilled or sprayed at a nearby ledderhose disease images attack site or other evidence of an attack or struggle. There may also be nearby remains of other victims for ledderhose disease images which there is still sufficient evidence to confirm predation, allowing reasonable inference of confirmed predation on the animal that ledderhose disease images has been largely consumed.

PROBABLE – Having some evidence to suggest possible predation, but lacking sufficient evidence to clearly confirm predation by a ledderhose disease images particular species, a kill may be classified as probable depending on a ledderhose disease images number of other factors such as: (1) Has there been any recently confirmed predation by the suspected ledderhose disease images depredating species in the same or nearby area? (2) How recently had the livestock owner or his employees observed ledderhose disease images the livestock? (3) Is there evidence (telemetry monitoring data, sightings, howling, fresh tracks, etc.) to suggest that the suspected depredating species may have been ledderhose disease images in the area when the depredation occurred? All of these factors, and possibly others, should be considered in the investigator’s best professional judgment.

POSSIBLE/UNKNOWN – Lacking sufficient evidence to classify an incident as either confirmed ledderhose disease images or probable predation, the possible/unknown classification is appropriate if it is unclear what the ledderhose disease images cause of death may have been. The investigator may or may not have much of a ledderhose disease images carcass remaining for inspection, or the carcass may have deteriorated so as to be ledderhose disease images of no use. The investigator would want to consider if the area has ledderhose disease images been frequented by a predator, or if the habitat is one which the predator is ledderhose disease images likely to use. Possible predation may include cases where counts show that abnormal ledderhose disease images numbers of livestock are missing or have disappeared above and ledderhose disease images beyond past experience, and where other known cases of predation have occurred previously ledderhose disease images in the area. OTHER – Cause of livestock deaths should be classified as other when ledderhose disease images it is discovered that the cause of death was not ledderhose disease images likely caused by the animal originally reported to Wildlife Services ledderhose disease images during a request for assistance. Examples of other may include cases where the cause of ledderhose disease images death is confirmed or is likely due to predation by ledderhose disease images some other animal or cause determined at the time of ledderhose disease images the investigation such as red fox instead of coyote or ledderhose disease images other causes such as, bloat, poisonous plants, stillborn, disease, lightning strike, vehicle collision, etc.

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